• Thyroid gland is a small, butterfly shaped gland located at the front of the neck along the windpipe
  • Weighing less than 30gram, this gland produces thyroid hormones, which control virtually every cell, tissue and organ in the body
  • If thyroid gland is not functioning properly, it can produce too much thyroid hormone, which causes the body’s systems to speed up or it can create too little thyroid hormone, which causes the body’s systems to slow down
  • Thyroid hormones maintain the rate at which the body burns calories, help control body temperature and regulate heart rate
  • Yes, thyroid disorders are by far the most commonest endocrine disorders in the community, affecting around 15-20 % of the population. They are more common than diabetes or heart disease.
  • These disorders include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and thyroid nodules. Women are five times more likely than men to develop thyroid disorders
  • Both hypothyroidism(decrease in thyroid function) and hyperthyroidism (increase in thyroid function) can cause symptoms and are dangerous if left untreated
  • Hypothyroidism may cause weight gain, tiredness, low energy, muscle aches, cold intolerance (feeling cold, even in a warm room), difficulty in concentrating, joint pain, dry skin, hair loss, constipation, menstrual irregularities, mood swings and depression. When the thyroid is only mildly underactive (subclinical hypothyroidism), patients may or may not have symptoms
  • Hyperthyroidism may cause intense anxiety, weight loss despite increased appetite, heat intolerance (feeling hot all the time), pounding of the heart (palpitations), difficulty sleeping, tremors in the hands, menstrual changes, diarrhea and an enlarged thyroid
  • Thyroid disease may be “functional”, causing disturbances in thyroid hormone levels, resulting in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism
  • Thyroid disease may be “structural,” causing enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting in goiter or nodules or tumors/cancer

Thyroid disorders occur mainly due to a disorder of the immune system (which functions to protect our body) resulting in destruction of thyroid. This thyroid destruction leads to permanent hypothyroidism (decrease in hormone production) and requires life long treatment

Sometimes, the immune system can also stimulate the thyroid to produce more hormones resulting in hyperthyroidism

Hypothyroidism (deficiency of thyroid hormone) is the commonest thyroid disorder and if a correct diagnosis is made then the thyroid medication (levothyroxine) needs to be taken life long

Levothyroxine tablets are to be taken orally (by mouth) first thing in the morning. A gap of atleast 30 minutes should be given after taking the tablet. During this thirty minutes, only plain water can be taken, coffee, tea or juice should not be consumed

Blood for thyroid function test is ideally given on empty stomach, first thing in the morning before taking the levothyroxine tablet

  • Consumption of iodized salt is recommended
  • Certain food groups (vegetables of brassica family like cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli) and soya should be avoided

Yes, a healthy thyroid gland activity is essential for a healthy pregnancy. Decreased thyroid gland activity can lead to polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) which may cause infertility. Thyroid gland hormones are also responsible for the nervous system development of the baby

Yes, PCOS and hypothyroidism are related. They both occur simultaneously. Decreased thyroxine level leads to polycystic ovaries leading to PCOS. Insulin resistance and increased weight can be a common factor for both

Majority of the thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous). However, it is always important to get the thyroid nodule evaluated by a thyroid specialist to rule out cancer. The risk of cancer in the thyroid nodule increases with the size of the nodule, in extremes of age (very young and old people) and in those with a family history of thyroid cancer

Our thyroid specialist will check the nodule to see if it is cancerous. Following a detailed medical history and a careful physical exam, blood tests and an ultrasound exam of the neck may be advised. If needed, a fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may be advised

The treatment for thyroid cancer is to remove the thyroid gland, which is called a thyroidectomy. In most cases, the entire thyroid needs to be removed and the lymph nodes surrounding the thyroid may be removed at the same time. In some cases only part of the thyroid gland needs to be removed

We use the latest, most advanced surgical techniques to maintain the quality of your voice and decrease bleeding and operation time

You should ideally consult a certified thyroid specialist (Endocrinologist/Endocrine surgeon) who is most qualified in the treatment thyroid disorders

A surgeon who specializes in the surgical treatment of thyroid and other endocrine glands is called an Endocrine Surgeon



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